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Chapter 10 covers groundwater chemistry. It begins with a review of water’s molecular properties and aqueous chemistry units. The natural chemistry of various groundwaters is discussed and compared to other natural waters. Isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen are discussed along with their ratios in different natural waters. Radioisotopes and water age dating techniques based on them are discussed. Three case studies illustrating the natural chemical evolution of groundwater are presented: the regional scale in the Floridan aquifer, the local scale in the Floridan aquifer, and the Milk River aquifer.
This article has not been cited. This chapter further discusses the abundance, distribution, and extraction of arsenic, antimony, and bismuth. None of the three elements is particularly abundant in the earth’s crust although several minerals contain them as major constituents. Antimony has two stable isotopes. Arsenic, antimony, and bismuth each exist in several allotropic forms.
There are three crystalline forms of arsenic, of which the ordinary, gray, metallic, rhombohedral α-form is the stablest at room temperature. Antimony exists in five forms in addition to the ordinary α-form. The chapter describes the physical properties of the α-rhombohedral form of arsenic, antimony, and bismuth. It also discusses the chemical reactivity and group trends of arsenic, antimony, and bismuth. Course materials, exam information, and professional development opportunities for AP teachers and coordinators. Teaching AP for the First Time?
AP students and teachers will get more resources, support, and feedback in 2019. Deadline for submitting requests for testing accommodations for students with disabilities. Learn about our offerings and how to register for a workshop or Summer Institute. Learn about AP’s new course Computer Science Principles, which launched in over 2,500 schools last fall. Review the updates to the AP history courses and exams, taking effect in the 2017-18 school year. See what happens at the AP Reading and apply to be a Reader. Teaching resources, exam questions, and useful information for every course and exam.